Childhood education for the 5 years aims at the integral development and the construction of the autonomy for children. This phase of 4 to 6 years is decision-making. It is here that basic attitudes are formed that have an impact throughout life.
Some children in this age group are active, full of energy and it is difficult for them to sit for a few minutes. Others have difficulty concentrating on details, are easily distracted, and have limited understanding of time and space.
They deal intensely with their emotions, they want to be the center of attention and they do not like changes, they prefer to stay in the routine. They play with other children, willing to share and give in, play yellow and pretend. At that age can be very quarrelsome, however, are able to listen and reason mainly in the phase of whys.
The motricity already makes great progress since they can get dressed and undress themselves. In this phase the motor coordination is trained, they execute isolated movements of the body (only the feet, only the hands). Interest begins in jokes that involve speed and speed. But it is difficult to participate in games with older children, because they change the rules a lot. Play is still parallel and uncooperative, they comprise rules, but they follow for short periods.
The stimulation of other physical abilities at this age, as well as psychological and cognitive development should be gradual. Being performed through activities that the child likes and never by obligation or desire of the parents to be athletes. When the activity is treated as a toy, or fun like activity boxes, there are more chances to conquer the child.
Preparing Activities for Your Child’s Students
It is essential that the child education professional understands the social, affective, psychomotor and cognitive development of the child of 5 years.
However, it must consider that this development takes place in different rhythms, according to the child’s life history, and with the possibilities offered by his environment, without variations in this rhythm being seen as “delays” or “deficiencies”.
It is important to make the child more active, with greater possibility of exposing his ideas and not simply the teacher choosing the activity or and the child only reproduce what he has learned.
The educator can conduct the pedagogical process, but always evaluating, listening and observing the children, aiming at their integral development.
And the best way to do this is through play, where the child has an opportunity to develop in every aspect as he experiences, creates, reinvents, and discovers.
The act of playing stimulates curiosity, initiative, self-confidence, imagination and intelligence. In addition, it enables you to exercise concentration, attention, engagement and interaction by providing challenges, motivation and learning by doing.
With regard to physical exercise, the best is one that can be done regularly. Physical activity for children cannot be punitive and not necessarily competitive, but always pleasurable. Adherence is key.
Therefore, starting to introduce physical activity with play is the best way to awaken in the child the taste for practice, movement and regularity.
This begins to introduce without the child noticing the practice of physical exercises. According to the American College of Sports Medicine (ACMS), all individuals from 2 years of age should develop 30 minutes of moderate to intense physical activity during most, or preferably, every day of the week.
Activities should be challenging, but not difficult or too easy. If the student is unable to perform the imposed task, he or she becomes unmotivated and low self-esteem. And if he does it easily he may lose interest in keeping it. Therefore, motivation is an essential part of learning and must be achieved through positive reinforcement. From the moment the child feels capable, it will not inhibit their curiosity or their attempts at solution.
Perhaps the most important thing is to make classes fun, starting with the teacher who should be rested and in a good mood. Thus, it is certain that all children will maintain adherence when the activity is fun and not an obligation.
The more playful the teaching in this phase of the 4 and 5 years, the greater is the child’s learning. Games and recreational games aimed at them should develop specific skills:
- Motor coordination
- Space orientation
- Rhythm, balance
- Temporary Organization
- Develop language as a form of communication.
And at the age of 5, with the perception that the child is developing harmoniously, it can already be inserted in sports modalities like swimming, soccer, ballet, for example.
This first contact with the sport should be such that it gives you pleasure and always with associated joke, like running, pedaling, or group activities, without the concern of learning specific techniques.